johnson_neyman.Rd
johnson_neyman
finds socalled "JohnsonNeyman" intervals for
understanding where simple slopes are significant in the context of
interactions in multiple linear regression.
johnson_neyman(model, pred, modx, vmat = NULL, alpha = 0.05, plot = TRUE, control.fdr = FALSE, line.thickness = 0.5, df = "residual", digits = getOption("jtoolsdigits", 2), critical.t = NULL, sig.color = "#00BFC4", insig.color = "#F8766D", mod.range = NULL, title = "JohnsonNeyman plot")
model  A regression model. It is tested with 

pred  The predictor variable involved in the interaction. 
modx  The moderator variable involved in the interaction. 
vmat  Optional. You may supply the variancecovariance matrix of the coefficients yourself. This is useful if you are using robust standard errors, as you could if using the sandwich package. 
alpha  The alpha level. By default, the standard 0.05. 
plot  Should a plot of the results be printed? Default is 
control.fdr  Logical. Use the procedure described in Esarey & Sumner (2017) to limit the false discovery rate? Default is FALSE. See details for more on this method. 
line.thickness  How thick should the predicted line be? This is
passed to 
df  How should the degrees of freedom be calculated for the critical
test statistic? Previous versions used the large sample approximation; if
alpha was .05, the critical test statistic was 1.96 regardless of sample
size and model complexity. The default is now "residual", meaning the same
degrees of freedom used to calculate p values for regression coefficients.
You may instead choose any number or "normal", which reverts to the
previous behavior. The argument is not used if 
digits  An integer specifying the number of digits past the decimal to
report in the output. Default is 2. You can change the default number of
digits for all jtools functions with

critical.t  If you want to provide the critical test statistic instead
relying on a normal or t approximation, or the 
sig.color  Sets the color for areas of the JohnsonNeyman plot where
the slope of the moderator is significant at the specified level. 
insig.color  Sets the color for areas of the JohnsonNeyman plot where
the slope of the moderator is insignificant at the specified level. 
mod.range  The range of values of the moderator (the xaxis) to plot.
By default, this goes from one standard deviation below the observed range
to one standard deviation above the observed range and the observed range
is highlighted on the plot. You could instead choose to provide the
actual observed minimum and maximum, in which case the range of the
observed data is not highlighted in the plot. Provide the range as a vector,
e.g., 
title  The plot title. 
The two numbers that make up the interval.
A dataframe with predicted values of the predictor's slope and lower/upper bounds of confidence bands if you would like to make your own plots
The ggplot
object used for plotting. You can tweak the
plot like you could any other from ggplot
.
The interpretation of the values given by this function is important and not always immediately intuitive. For an interaction between a predictor variable and moderator variable, it is often the case that the slope of the predictor is statistically significant at only some values of the moderator. For example, perhaps the effect of your predictor is only significant when the moderator is set at some high value.
The JohnsonNeyman interval provides the two values of the moderator at which the slope of the predictor goes from nonsignificant to significant. Usually, the predictor's slope is only significant outside of the range given by the function. The output of this function will make it clear either way.
One weakness of this method of probing interactions is that it is analogous
to making multiple comparisons without any adjustment to the alpha level.
Esarey & Sumner (2017) proposed a method for addressing this, which is
implemented in the interactionTest
package. This function implements that
procedure with modifications to the interactionTest
code (that package is
not required to use this function). If you set control.fdr = TRUE
, an
alternative t statistic will be calculated based on your specified alpha
level and the data. This will always be a more conservative test than when
control.fdr = FALSE
. The printed output will report the calculated
critical t statistic.
This technique is not easily ported to 3way interaction contexts. You could,
however, look at the JN interval at two different levels of a second
moderator. This does forgo a benefit of the JN technique, which is not
having to pick arbitrary points. If you want to do this, just use the
sim_slopes
function's ability to handle 3way interactions
and request JohnsonNeyman intervals for each.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2005). Probing interactions in fixed and multilevel regression: Inferential and graphical techniques. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40(3), 373400. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr4003_5
Esarey, J., & Sumner, J. L. (2017). Marginal effects in interaction models: Determining and controlling the false positive rate. Comparative Political Studies, 1–33. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414017730080
Johnson, P.O. & Fay, L.C. (1950). The JohnsonNeyman technique, its theory and application. Psychometrika, 15, 349367. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02288864
Other interaction tools: probe_interaction
,
sim_margins
, sim_slopes
# Using a fitted lm model states < as.data.frame(state.x77) states$HSGrad < states$`HS Grad` fit < lm(Income ~ HSGrad + Murder*Illiteracy, data = states) johnson_neyman(model = fit, pred = Murder, modx = Illiteracy)#> JOHNSONNEYMAN INTERVAL #> #> When Illiteracy is OUTSIDE the interval [0.80, 2.67], the slope of #> Murder is p < .05. #> #> Note: The range of observed values of Illiteracy is [0.50, 2.80] #>